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Author:Butler, Alison 

Working Paper
Nonlinearity and chaos in economic models: implications for policy decisions
This survey paper discusses the policy implications that can be expected from the recent research on nonlinearity and chaos in economic models. Expected policy implications are interpreted as a driving force behind the recent proliferation of research in this area. In general, it appears that no new justification for policy intervention is developed in models of endogenous fluctuations, although this conclusion depends in part on the definition of equilibrium. When justified, however, policy tends to be very effective in these models.
AUTHORS: Bullard, James B.; Butler, Alison
DATE: 1992

Working Paper
Endogenous innovation in a north-north model of the product cycle
This paper examines the effect of endogenous innovation in a North-North model of the product cycle. Innovation is a dynamic process that requires labor to b employed in research and development for innovation to occur. Technology is transferred both within and across countries. The results show that in this generalized product cycle model, the amount of innovation and technology transfer affects the economic incentives to innovate and the relative wages in both countries. As a result, changes in the amount of innovation in one country can have significant redistributional effects worldwide, both across and within countries.
AUTHORS: Butler, Alison
DATE: 1990

Journal Article
Environmental protection and free trade: are they mutually exclusive?
AUTHORS: Butler, Alison
DATE: 1992-05

Journal Article
Trade imbalances and economic theory: the case for a U.S.-Japan trade deficit
AUTHORS: Butler, Alison
DATE: 1991-03

Journal Article
Is the United States losing its dominance in high-technology industries?
AUTHORS: Butler, Alison
DATE: 1992-11

Journal Article
A methodological approach to chaos: are economists missing the point?
AUTHORS: Butler, Alison
DATE: 1990-03

Journal Article
The trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights: what is at stake?
AUTHORS: Butler, Alison
DATE: 1990-11

Working Paper
Product cycles, innovation and relative wages in European countries
This paper attempts to bridge the gap between the theoretical literature examining how innovation affects income across countries and the empirical literature examining how relative wages within a country change over time. We test the hypothesis that the relative wage between workers in high-and low-technology industries within a country is a function of the rate of domestic innovation and innovation abroad. To test this hypothesis data for 7 European countries for the years 1971-1988 are used. The empirical results show that the relative rates of innovation (as measured by the ratio of patents to high-tech workers) are significant determinants of the relative wage.
AUTHORS: Butler, Alison; Dueker, Michael J.
DATE: 1994

Working Paper
R&D spending and cyclical fluctuations: putting the "technology" in technology shocks
We examine the dynamic properties of an endogenous growth model with an explicit R&D sector in order to evaluate its ability to propagate temporary disturbances into persistent fluctuations in macroeconomic variables. We demonstrate that a large proportion of the variability and persistence of measured Solow residuals can be thought of as reflecting the endogenous accumulation and adaptation of technical knowledge rather than simply exogenous processes. By explicitly modeling R&D, we use a framework in which it is possible to explicitly consider the role of technology in "technology shocks."
AUTHORS: Butler, Alison; Pakko, Michael R.
DATE: 1998

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