Family characteristics and macroeconomic factors in U. S. intragenerational family income mobility, 1978–2014
Family economic mobility has been a policy concern for decades, with interest heating up further since the 1990s. Using data that tracks individual families? incomes during overlapping 10-year periods from 1978 through 2014, this paper investigates the relationships of factors ? family characteristics and macro influences ? to intragenerational mobility and whether the importance of those factors has changed over time. Family characteristics include both levels of work behavior and family structure and within-period changes in those factors, as well as time-invariant characteristics of the ...
Measurement of unemployment
Measures of unemployment tally people without a job who are looking for one. For measurement purposes, the critical question is what constitutes ?looking.? This article summarizes how unemployment is measured in the United States and Europe, and describes recent research investigating the permeability of the dividing line between the unemployed and ?marginally attached? subgroups of those out of the labor market. A continuum between unemployed and entirely inactive individuals indicates that measures beyond unemployment may be useful in judging the state of the labor market.
Labor supply in the new century
To explore the labor-supply trends that will affect economic policymaking in the twenty-first century, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston chose "Labor Supply in the New Century? as the theme for its 52nd Annual Economic Conference held in June 2007. The conference?s six papers and its keynote address by Eugene Steuerle provide a broad overview of the quantity and quality implications of labor-supply trends.
Trends in U.S. family income mobility, 1967–2004
Much of America?s promise is predicated on the existence of economic mobility?the idea that people are not limited or defined by where they start, but can move up the economic ladder based on their efforts and accomplishments. Family income mobility?changes in individual families? real incomes over time?is one indicator of the degree to which the eventual economic wellbeing of any family is tethered to its starting point. In the United States, family income inequality has risen from year to year since the mid-1970s, raising questions about whether long-term income is also increasingly ...
Black men in the labor market
New England: the regional recovery
Equity in school finance: state aid to schools in New England
Perhaps the most widely held view of the Crash of 1987 is the Cascade Theory: the Despite the goal of equal access to comparable public education, spending disparities among school districts persist. All the New England states provide more school aid per pupil to poor districts than to rich districts. Nevertheless, districts with smaller per-pupil tax bases spend less per pupil and levy higher school tax rates than wealthier districts. Even in the two New England states with the smallest spending disparities, the richest one-fifth of the districts spend 20 percent more per pupil than the ...
Labor market transitions and the availability of unemployment insurance
Economists often expect unemployment insurance (UI) benefits to elevate unemployment rates because recipients may choose to remain unemployed in order to continue receiving benefits, instead of accepting a job or dropping out of the labor force. This paper uses individual data from the Current Population Survey for the period between 2005 and 2013 ? a period during which the federal government extended and then reduced the length of benefit availability to varying degrees in different states ? to investigate the influence of program parameters in the UI system on monthly transition rates of ...
Chasing good schools in Massachusetts
Trends in U. S. family income mobility, 1969-2006
Much of America's promise is predicated on economic mobility?the idea that people are not limited or defined by where they start, but can move up the economic ladder based on their efforts and accomplishments. Family income mobility?changes in individual families' income positions over time?is one indicator of the degree to which the eventual economic wellbeing of any family is tethered to its starting point. In the United States, family income inequality has risen from year to year since the mid-1970s; given this rising cross-sectional inequality, changes over time in mobility determine the ...