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Author:Bräuning, Falk 

Working Paper
High-Yield Debt Covenants and Their Real Effects

High-yield debt, including leveraged loans, features incurrence financial covenants or "cov-lite" provisions. These covenants differ from traditional loans' maintenance covenants, as they preserve equity control rights but impose specific restrictions on the borrower after crossing the covenant threshold. Contrary to the prevailing belief that incurrence covenants offer limited protection for creditors, our research reveals a significant and sudden decline in investment upon triggering these covenants. This evidence highlights a novel propagation mechanism for economic shocks, wherein ...
Working Papers , Paper 2311

Uptake of the Main Street Lending Program

The Main Street Lending Program (Main Street) was one of several new credit facilities launched by the Federal Reserve and the U.S. Department of the Treasury (Treasury) in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Federal Reserve published draft terms for Main Street on April 9, 2020, and the program started purchasing loan participations on July 6, 2020, with the goal of supporting lending to a wide range of small and medium-sized businesses that were in sound financial condition before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. When the program’s draft terms were first circulated, pandemic-related ...
Current Policy Perspectives

Working Paper
Output Spillovers from U.S. Monetary Policy: The Role of International Trade and Financial Linkages

We estimate that U.S. monetary policy has sizable spillover effects on global economic activity. In response to a surprise increase in the federal funds rate of 25 basis points, real output in our sample of 44 countries declines on average by 0.9% after three years. We find that international trade is a more important factor than international finance in explaining these spillovers. In particular, countries with a high share of exports and imports in output have 79% larger responses than countries with a low share, whereas we do not find significant heterogeneity depending on a country’s ...
Working Papers , Paper 19-15

Working Paper
International financial integration, crises, and monetary policy: evidence from the euro area interbank crises

We analyze how financial crises affect international financial integration, exploiting euro area proprietary interbank data, crisis and monetary policy shocks, and variation in loan terms to the same borrower on the same day by domestic versus foreign lenders. Crisis shocks reduce the supply of crossborder liquidity, with stronger volume effects than pricing effects, thereby impairing international financial integration. On the extensive margin, there is flight to home ? but this is independent of quality. On the intensive margin, however, GIPS-headquartered debtor banks suffer in the Lehman ...
Working Papers , Paper 17-6

Stress testing effects on portfolio similarities among large US Banks

We use an expansive regulatory loan-level dataset to analyze how the portfolios of the largest US banks have evolved since 2011. In particular, we analyze how the commercial and industrial and commercial real estate loan portfolios have changed in response to stress-testing requirements stipulated in the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act. We find that the largest US banks, which are subject to stress testing, have become more similar since the current form of the stress testing was implemented in 2011. We also find that banks with poor stress test results tend to adjust their portfolios in a way that makes ...
Current Policy Perspectives , Paper 19-1

Working Paper
Corporate Finance and the Transmission of Shocks to the Real Economy

Credit availability from different sources varies greatly across firms and has firm-level effects on investment decisions and aggregate effects on output. We develop a theoretical framework in which firms decide endogenously at the extensive and intensive margins of different funding sources to study the role of firm choices on the transmission of credit supply shocks to the real economy. As in the data, firms can borrow from different banks, issue bonds, or raise equity through retained earnings to fund productive investment. Our model is calibrated to detailed firm- and loan-level data and ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-18

Working Paper
Cost-Price Relationships in a Concentrated Economy

We use local projections with granular instrumental variables to estimate the aggregate pass-through of costs into prices and how it is affected by industry concentration. On average, we find, prices increase above trend growth for three quarters after an exogenous cost shock, and the price increase is accompanied by a decline in output. The estimated pass-through of the shock into prices one quarter ahead is 0.7. The price response to shocks becomes about 27 percent larger when there is an increase in concentration similar to the one observed over the last 20 years. This differential effect ...
Working Papers , Paper 23-9

Working Paper
The Transmission Mechanisms of International Business Cycles: Output Spillovers through Trade and Financial Linkages

We study the transmission channels through which shocks affect the global economy and the cross-country comovement of real economic activity. For this purpose, we collect detailed data on international trade and financial linkages as well as domestic macro and financial variables for a large set of countries. We document significant international output comovement following U.S. monetary shocks, and find that openness to international trade matters more than financial openness in explaining cross-country spillovers. In particular, output in countries with a high share of exports and imports ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-13

Working Paper
A dynamic network model of the unsecured interbank lending market

The unsecured interbank lending market plays a crucial role in financing business activity, a fact underscored by the market's disruption following the Lehman Brothers failure in September 2008. This event, a defining moment in the global financial crisis, fostered greater uncertainty about counterparty risk, an adverse shock that severely curtailed credit supply, hampered monetary policy, and negatively impacted the real economy. To counteract the consequences of the crisis, central banks became the primary intermediaries for a large portion of the money market. However, a single main ...
Working Papers , Paper 16-3

Working Paper
Did High Leverage Render Small Businesses Vulnerable to the COVID-19 Shock?

Using supervisory data on small and mid-sized nonfinancial enterprises (SMEs), we find that those SMEs with higher leverage faced tighter constraints in accessing bank credit after the COVID-19 outbreak in spring 2020. Specifically, SMEs with higher pre-COVID leverage obtained a smaller volume of new loans and had to pay a higher spread on them during the pandemic period. Consistent with an inward shift in loan supply, these effects were concentrated in loans originated by banks with below-median capital buffers. Highly levered SMEs that relied on low-capital large banks for funding before ...
Working Papers , Paper 22-13



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