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Author:Baughman, Garth 

Working Paper
Faster Payments : Market Structure and Policy Considerations

The U.S. payments industry is in the process of developing ubiquitous, safe, faster electronic solutions for making a broad variety of business and personal payments. How this market for faster payments will evolve will be shaped by a range of economic forces, such as economies of scale and scope, network effects, switching costs, and product differentiation. Emerging technologies could alter these forces and lead to new organizational arrangements or market structures that are different from those in legacy payment markets to date. In light of this uncertainty, this paper examines three ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2017-100

Working Paper
A Simple Model of Voluntary Reserve Targets with Tolerance Bands

This note presents a simplifed version of the model of voluntary reserve targets (VRT) developed in Baughman and Carapella (forthcoming), with a Walrasian interbank market. First, the model makes transparent the role of target setting in controlling the market rate. Second, the simplicity of the model allows for an analysis of the interaction between VRT and tolerance bands, which are a common tool for controlling rate variability. We find that the persistent overshooting of interbank rates observed during the Bank of England's experiment with VRT may derive from the interaction between ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2019-060

Working Paper
Capacity Choice, Monetary Trade, and the Cost of Inflation

Firms often make production decisions before meeting a buyer. We incorporate this often-overlooked fact into an otherwise standard monetary search model and show that it has important implications for the set of equilibria, efficiency, and the cost of inflation. Our model features a strategic complementarity between the buyers' ex ante choice of money balances and sellers' ex ante choice of productive capacity. When resale value of unsold inventories is high, sellers carry excess capacity and the equilibrium is unique. But, when resale value is low, there is a continuum of equilibria, all of ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2020-019

Working Paper
Global Demand for Basket-Backed Stablecoins

We develop a model where persistent trade shocks create demand for a basket- backed stablecoin, such as Mark Carney's "synthetic hegemonic currency" or Facebook's recent proposal for Libra. In numerical simulations, we find four main results. First, because of general equilibrium effects of the basket currency on the volatility of currency values, overall demand for that currency is small. Second, despite scant holdings of the basket, its global reach may contribute to substantial increases in welfare if the basket is widely accepted, allowing it to complement holdings of sovereign ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2020-048

Report
Faster payments: market structure and policy considerations

The U.S. payments industry is in the process of developing ubiquitous, safe, faster electronic solutions for making a broad variety of business and personal payments. How this market for faster payments will evolve will be shaped by a range of economic forces, such as economies of scale and scope, network effects, switching costs, and product differentiation. Emerging technologies could alter these forces and lead to new organizational arrangements or market structures that are different from those in legacy payment markets to date. In light of this uncertainty, this paper examines three ...
Current Policy Perspectives , Paper 17-4

Working Paper
Nonlinear Unemployment Effects of the Inflation Tax

We argue that long-run inflation has nonlinear and state-dependent effects on unemployment, output, and welfare. Using panel data from the OECD, we document three correlations. First, there is a positive long-run relationship between anticipated inflation and unemployment. Second, there is also a positive correlation between anticipated inflation and unemployment volatility. Third, the long-run inflation-unemployment relationship is not only positive, but also stronger when unemployment is higher. We show that these correlations arise in a standard monetary search model with two shocks – ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2021-040

Working Paper
Faster Payments: Market Structure and Policy Considerations

This paper reports on a research effort by Federal Reserve staff to examine market structure implications in the still?emerging faster payments market. The analysis and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not indicate official positions of the Board of Governors or Federal Reserve System. Although this paper offers several considerations regarding the U.S. faster payments market, it does not make specific policy recommendations or provide a view on the potential roles, including service provider or other roles, that the Federal Reserve may play in this market.2 Given the ...
Research Working Paper , Paper RWP 17-14

Working Paper
Self-confirming Price Dispersion in Monetary Economies

In a monetary economy, we show that price dispersion arises as an equilibrium outcome without the need for costly simultaneous search or any heterogeneity in preferences, production costs, or search technologies. A distribution of money holdings among buyers makes sellers indifferent across a set of posted prices, leading to a non-degenerate price distribution. This price distribution, in turn, makes buyers indifferent across a range of money balances, rationalizing the non-degenerate distribution of money holdings. We completely characterize the distribution of posted prices and money ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2018-046

Working Paper
Voluntary Reserve Targets

This paper updates the standard workhorse model of banks' reserve management to include frictions inherent to money markets. We apply the model to study monetary policy implementation through an operating regime involving voluntary reserve targets (VRT). When reserves are abundant, as is the case following the unconventional policies adopted during the recent financial crisis, operating regimes based on reserve requirements may lead to a collapse in interbank trade. We show that, no matter the relative abundance of reserves, VRT encourage market activity and support the central bank's control ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2018-032

Working Paper
Deadlines and Matching

Deadlines and fixed end dates are pervasive in matching markets including school choice, the market for new graduates, and even financial markets such as the market for federal funds. Deadlines drive fundamental non-stationarity and complexity in behavior, generating significant departures from the steady-state equilibria usually studied in the search and matching literature. I consider a two-sided matching market with search frictions where vertically differentiated agents attempt to form bilateral matches before a deadline. I give conditions for existence and uniqueness of equilibria, and ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2016-14

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