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Author:Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu 

Working Paper
Terror Externalities and Trade: An Empirical Analysis
We report robust evidence of adverse cross-border externalities from terrorism on trade for over 160 countries from 1976 to 2014. Terrorism in one country spills over to reduce trade in neighboring nations. These externalities arise from higher trade costs due to trade delays and macroeconomic uncertainty.
AUTHORS: Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Doucouliagos, Hristos; Pham, Cong S.
DATE: 2019-05-29

Journal Article
Comparing Income, Education and Job Data for Immigrants vs. Those Born in U.S.
Find out how the two groups compare on the national level as a whole as well as in the states with the highest/lowest percentage of immigrants.
AUTHORS: Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Rodrigo , Guerrero
DATE: 2017

Journal Article
Taking a Closer Look at U.S. Exports to China
Civilian aircraft, soybeans, motor vehicles and microchips are the biggest U.S. exports to China, and production of these goods is geographically concentrated. In the case of soybeans, 10 states produced 79 percent of the U.S. crop in 2016.
AUTHORS: Bharadwaj, Asha; Roy, Suryadipta; Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu
DATE: 2018

Journal Article
Effects of Credit Supply on Unemployment and Income Inequality
The Great Recession, which was preceded by the Financial Crisis, resulted in higher unemployment and income inequality. We propose a simple model where firms producing varieties face labor-market frictions and credit constraints. In the model, tighter credit leads to lower output, a lower number of vacancies, and higher directed-search unemployment. If workers are more productive at higher levels of firm output, then a lower credit supply increases firm capital intensity, raises income inequality by increasing the rental of capital relative to the wage, and has an ambiguous effect on welfare. With an initially high share of labor costs in total production costs, tighter credit lowers welfare. This pattern reverses during an expansionary phase when there is higher credit availability.
AUTHORS: Dinopoulos , Elias; Unel, Bulent; Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu
DATE: 2018

Working Paper
Effects of Credit Supply on Unemployment and Inequality
The Great Recession, which was preceded by the financial crisis, resulted in higher unemployment and inequality. We propose a simple model where firms producing varieties face labor-market frictions and credit constraints. In the model, tighter credit leads to lower output, lower number of vacancies, and higher directed-search unemployment. Where workers are more productive at higher levels of firm output, lower credit supply increases firm capital intensity, raises inequality by increasing the rental of capital relative to the wage, and has an ambiguous effect on welfare. At initial high levels of labor share in total costs tighter credit lowers welfare. This pattern reverses during an expansionary phase caused by higher credit availability.
AUTHORS: Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Dinopoulos , Elias; Unel, Bulent
DATE: 2016-06-15

Working Paper
The Effects of Terror on International Air Passenger Transport: An Empirical Investigation
This paper presents a theoretical model (adapted from the structural gravity model by Anderson and van Wincoop, 2003) to capture the effects of terrorism on air passenger traffic between nations affected by terrorism. We then use equations derived from this model, in conjunction with alternative functional forms for trade costs, to estimate the effects of terrorism on bilateral air passenger flows from 57 source countries to 25 destination countries for the period of 2000 to 2014. We find that an additional terrorist incident results in approximately a 1.2% decrease in the bilateral air passenger transport per unit distance while doubling of the accumulated terrorist incidents during the past 5 years reduces it by 18%. Terrorism adversely impacts the bilateral air passenger transport per unit distance both by reducing national output and especially by increasing psychological distress, which could be an important contributing factor in perceived travel costs. Last but not the least, we show that the responsiveness of international air travel to terrorism critically depends on the nature of the terrorist attacks. Specifically, international air passenger transport is found to be extremely sensitive to fatal terrorist attacks and terrorist attacks of targets such as airports, transportation or tourists.
AUTHORS: Mitra, Devashish; Pham, Cong S.; Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu
DATE: 2017-02-01

Working Paper
Terms-of-Trade and Counterterrorism Externalities
This paper investigates the interplay of trade and terrorism externalities under free trade between a developed nation that exports a manufactured good to and imports a primary product from a developing nation. A terrorist organization targets both nations and reduces its attacks in response to a nation?s defensive counterterrorism efforts, while transferring some of its attacks abroad. Terms-of-trade considerations lead the developed nation to raise its counterterrorism level beyond the ?small-country? level, thus compounding its over provision of these measures. By contrast, the developing nation limits its defensive countermeasures below that of the small-country level. The analysis is extended to include proactive countermeasures to weaken the terrorist group. Again, the developed country raises its efforts owing to the terms-of-trade externality, which now opposes the under provision associated with proactive efforts. A second extension allows for several developing country exporters of the primary product.
AUTHORS: Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Sandler, Todd; Younas, Javed
DATE: 2017-06-01

Working Paper
Terrorism, Trade and Welfare: Some Paradoxes and a Policy Conundrum
We present a standard trade model and show that terrorism can be trade inducing, starting from autarky. In addition, terrorism can be shown to be welfare augmenting for a group of nations. Finally, we present some qualitative conditions that identify when a nation?s trade volume may rise (or fall) in response to a greater incidence of terrorism. Our trade and welfare results point to potential difficulties in international coordination of counterterrorism policy because of terrorism?s differential impact across nations.
AUTHORS: Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Sandler, Todd; Younas, Javed
DATE: 2016-03-01

Working Paper
Biofuel subsidies: an open-economy analysis
We present a general equilibrium analysis of biofuel subsidies in an open-economy context. In the small-country case, when a Pigouvian tax on conventional fuels such as crude is in place, the optimal biofuel subsidy is zero. When the tax on crude is not available as a policy option, however, a second-best biofuel subsidy (or tax) is optimal. In the large-country case, the optimal tax on crude departs from its standard Pigouvian level and a biofuel subsidy is optimal. A biofuel subsidy spurs global demand for food and confers a terms-of-trade benefit to the food-exporting nation. This might encourage the food-exporting nation to use a subsidy even if it raises global crude use. The food importer has no such incentive for subsidization. Terms-of-trade effects wash out between trading nations; hence, any policy intervention by the two trading nations that raises crude use must be jointly suboptimal.
AUTHORS: Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Bhaumik, Sumon; Wall, Howard J.
DATE: 2009

Working Paper
Trade and Terrorism: A Disaggregated Approach
This paper constructs a model of trade consequences of terrorism, where firms in trading nations face different costs arising from domestic and transnational terrorism. Using dyadic dataset in a gravity model, we test terrorism?s effects on overall trade, exports, and imports, while allowing for disaggregation by primary commodities and manufacturing goods. While terrorism has little or no influence on trade of primary products, terrorism reduces trade of manufactured goods. This novel finding pinpoints the avenue by which terrorism harms trade and suggests why previous studies that looked at all trade found modest impacts. Moreover, the detrimental effect of transnational terrorism on total manufactured trade, exports, and imports as well as on various classes of manufactured trade is substantially larger than that of domestic terrorism. Generally, this adverse impact is more pronounced for imports than for exports.
AUTHORS: Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Sandler, Todd; Younas, Javed
DATE: 2016-02-01

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