A dynamic analysis of bank failures
Discrimination in consumer credit markets
Trends in home purchase lending: consolidation and the Community Reinvestment Act
Consolidation among banking institutions has substantially changed the structure of the banking industry. Between 1975 and 1997, the number of commercial banks and savings associations declined more than 40 percent. Over the same broad period, the market for home mortgage lending has also changed substantially. Notably, home mortgage lending is no longer primarily the province of banking institutions operating in the communities in which they have banking offices. In recent decades, mortgage and finance companies and banking organizations operating outside their local communities have gained ...
Loan commitments and bank risk exposure
Loan commitments increase a bank's risk by obligating it to issue future loans under terms that it might otherwise refuse. However, moral hazard and adverse selection problems potentially may result in these contracts being rationed or sorted. Depending on the relative risks of the borrowers who do and do not receive commitments, commitment loans could be safer or riskier on average than other loans. the empirical results indicate that commitment loans tend to have slightly better than average performance, suggesting that commitments generate little risk or that this risk is offset by the ...
CRA special lending programs
The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) of 1977 encourages federally insured banking institutions to help meet the credit needs of their communities, including those of lower-income areas, in a manner consistent with their safe and sound operation. In responding to the CRA, many banking institutions have sought to expand lending to lower-income populations through special lending programs that seek out and assist such borrowers in a variety of ways. These programs, many of which include third parties such as government agencies and nonprofit groups, are often an important element of an ...
Estate vs. capital gains taxation: an evaluation of prospective policies for taxing wealth at the time of death
Debate over the U.S. federal estate tax has intensified recently as a result of the sunset provisions in the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (EGTRRA) of 2001 and changes in law passed in conjunction with the "fiscal cliff" at the end of 2012. Despite recent changes in the law, there remains an open debate regarding the extent to which prospective estates comprise assets that have been taxed previously. Using wealth data on U.S. households, we forecast changes in household wealth in the coming decade and calculate the importance of untaxed wealth in bequeathed estates. ...
Access to credit for minority-owned businesses
Lender consistency in housing credit markets
The 2009 HMDA data: the mortgage market in a time of low interest rates and economic distress
The data that mortgage lending institutions reported for 2009 under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975 (HMDA) reflect the ongoing difficulties in the housing and mortgage markets. This article presents a number of key findings from a review of the 2009 HMDA data. In particular, it documents the wave of refinancing but discusses factors that may have muted such opportunities, explores patterns of lending across groups and areas with high rates of foreclosure, highlights the federal governmentâ€™s greatly expanded role in the mortgage market, and examines how the interest rate ...
Posted rates as signals in mortgage lending markets
A discussion of how mortgage lenders might use posted lending terms to signal both their eagerness to take new loan applications and their lending standards.