A dynamic analysis of bank failures
The mortgage market in 2010: highlights from the data reported under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act
This article presents a number of key findings from a review of the data that mortgage lending institutions reported for 2010 under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA). The article documents home-purchase lending activity reflected in the HMDA data and discusses how the ending of the government's first-time homebuyer tax credit program during the year may have affected such lending. It also documents refinance lending activity and explores factors that may have muted such lending during 2010. In addition, the article closely examines patterns of lending across different racial or ethnic ...
An analysis of the short-run money supply mechanism
Later edition, No. 89
Making judgments about mortgage lending patterns
A discussion of discrepancies in methods of evaluating evidence on mortgage-lending discrimination in minority and low-income areas, outlining fundamental differences between studies that focus mostly on neighborhood characteristics and regulatory-agency compliance examinations that concentrate on the attributes of individual lenders.
Changes in the distribution of banking offices
The past twenty years have been marked by major structural and regulatory changes in the banking industry. This article explores the relationships between these changes and the distribution of "brick and mortar" banking offices between 1975 and 1995. The analysis explores how population shifts, deregulation, and mergers, acquisitions, and failures may have influenced changes in the number and location of banking offices. Special attention is given to changes in banking office distributions across neighborhoods grouped by the median income of their residents and their central city, suburban, ...
Higher-priced home lending and the 2005 HMDA data
This article reviews the 2005 HMDA data, which have just been released to the public. The 2004 article covered a wide range of topics, including ways in which the expanded data might be used to aid fair lending enforcement, but this article is more limited: The focus here is primarily on the loan-pricing aspects of the data, including those that permit an assessment of the effects of the changing interest rate situation in 2004 and 2005 on the disclosure of higher-priced lending. To identify the effects on lending patterns of changing interest rates, the analysis presented here uses adjusted ...
Does credit scoring produce a disparate impact?
The widespread use of credit scoring in the underwriting and pricing of mortgage and consumer credit has raised concerns that the use of these scores may unfairly disadvantage minority populations. A specific concern has been that the independent variables that comprise these models may have a disparate impact on these demographic groups. By "disparate impact" we mean that a variable's predictive power might arise not from its ability to predict future performance within any demographic group, but rather from acting as a surrogate for group membership. Using a unique source of data that ...