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Author:Andres, Javier 

Working Paper
Money and the natural rate of interest: structural estimates for the United States and the Euro area
We examine the role of money, allowing for three competing environments: the New Keynesian model with separable utility and static money demand; a non-separable utility variant with habit formation; and a version with adjustment costs for holding real balances. The last two variants imply forward-looking behavior of real money balances, as it is optimal for agents to allow their forecast of future interest rates to affect current portfolio decisions. We distinguish between these specifications by conducting a structural econometric analysis for the U.S. and the euro area. FIML estimates confirm the forward-looking character of money demand. Using these estimates we find that, in response to preference and technology shocks, real money balances are valuable in anticipating future variations in the natural interest rate.
AUTHORS: Andres, Javier; Lopez-Salido, J. David; Nelson, Edward
DATE: 2007

Working Paper
Household's Balance Sheets and the Effect of Fiscal Policy
Using the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics, we identify six household types as a function of their balance sheet composition. Since 1999, there has been a decline in the share of patient households and an increase in the share of impatient households with negative wealth. Using a DSGE model with search and matching frictions, we explore how changes in the distribution of households affect the transmission of government spending shocks. We show that the relative share of households in the left tail of the wealth distribution plays a key role in the aggregate marginal propensity to consume, the magnitude of the fiscal multipliers, and the distributional consequences of fiscal shocks. While the output and consumption multipliers are positively correlated with the share of households with negative wealth, the size of the employment multiplier is negatively correlated. For calibrations based on the empirical household weights after the Great Recession, our model delivers jobless fiscal expansions.
AUTHORS: Andres, Javier; Bosca, Jose E.; Ferri, Javier; Fuentes-Albero, Cristina
DATE: 2018-02-08

Working Paper
Tobin's imperfect asset substitution in optimizing general equilibrium
In this paper, we present a dynamic optimizing model that allows explicitly for imperfect substitutability between different financial assets. This is specified in a manner which captures Tobin's (1969) view that an expansion of one asset's supply affects both the yield on that asset and the spread or "risk premium" between returns on that asset and alternative assets. Our estimates of this model on U.S. data confirm that some of the observed deviations of long-term rates from the expectations theory of the term structure can be traced to movements in the relative stocks of financial assets. The richer aggregate demand and asset specifications imply that there exists an additional channel of monetary policy. Our results suggest that central bank operations exercise a modest influence on the relative prices of alternative financial securities, and so exert an extra effect on long-term yields and aggregate demand separate from their effect on the expected path of short-term rates.
AUTHORS: Andres, Javier; Lopez-Salido, J. David; Nelson, Edward
DATE: 2004

Working Paper
Sticky-price models and the natural rate hypothesis
A major criticism of standard specifications of price adjustment in models for monetary policy analysis is that they violate the natural rate hypothesis by allowing output to differ from potential in steady state. In this paper we estimate a dynamic optimizing business cycle model whose price-setting behavior satisfies the natural rate hypothesis. The price-adjustment specifications we consider are the sticky-information specification of Mankiw and Reis (2002) and the indexed contracts of Christiano, Eichenbaum, and Evans (2005). Our empirical estimates of the real side of the economy are similar whichever price adjustment specification is chosen. Consequently, the alternative model specifications deliver similar estimates of the U.S. output gap series, but the empirical behavior of the gap series differs substantially from standard gap estimates.
AUTHORS: Andres, Javier; Lopez-Salido, J. David; Nelson, Edward
DATE: 2005


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