Dynamics in systematic liquidity
We develop the principal component analysis (PCA) approach to systematic liquidity measurement by introducing moving and expanding estimation windows. We evaluate these methods along with traditional estimation techniques (full sample PCA and market average) in terms of ability to explain (1) cross-sectional stock liquidity and (2) cross-sectional stock returns. For several traditional liquidity measures our results suggest an expanding window specification for systematic liquidity estimation. However, for price impact liquidity measures we find support for a moving window specification. The ...
Banks and credit unions: competition not going away
Has the competitive balance tilted away from banks and toward credit unions, given the latter?s tax exemption and more-recent ability to draw members from wider pools? Whether it has or not, both industries have seen similar trend growth over the past 15 years?and, in fact, have come to resemble each other in many ways.
On the road to recovery, soft patches turn up often
Monetary aggregation theory and statistical index numbers
This paper is the first of two from the Monetary Services Indices (MSI) Project at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. The second paper, Working Paper 96-008B, summarizes the methodology, construction and data sources for the an extensive new database of monetary services indices, often referred to as Divisia monetary aggregates, for the United States. This paper surveys the microeconomic theory of the aggregation of monetary assets, bringing together results that are not otherwise readily available in a single source. In addition to indices of the flow of monetary services, the Project's ...
The 1990s acceleration in labor productivity: causes and measurement
The acceleration of labor productivity growth that began during the mid-1990s is the defining economic event of the past decade. A consensus has arisen among economists that the acceleration was caused by technological innovations that decreased the quality-adjusted prices of semiconductors and related information and communications technology (ICT) products, including digital computers. In sharp contrast to the previous 20 years, services-producing sectors-heavy users of ICT products-led the productivity increase, besting even a robust manufacturing sector. In this article, the authors ...
Quantitative easing the Swedish way
Most central banks implement quantitative easing through asset purchases. Sweden took a different path.
Mutual funds and monetary aggregates - introduction
Mean-variance vs. full-scale optimization: broad evidence for the U.K.
In the Full-Scale Optimization approach the complete empirical financial return probability distribution is considered, and the utility maximising solution is found through numerical optimization. Earlier studies have shown that this approach is useful for investors following non-linear utility functions (such as bilinear and S-shaped utility) and choosing between highly non-normally distributed assets, such as hedge funds. We clarify the role of (mathematical) smoothness and differentiability of the utility function in the relative performance of FSO among a broad class of utility functions. ...