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Author:Ammer, John 

Working Paper
Do fundamentals explain the international impact of U.S. interest rates? evidence at the firm level

This paper analyzes the impact of U.S. monetary policy announcement surprises on U.S. and foreign firm-level equity prices. We find that U.S. monetary policy has important influences on foreign equity prices on average, but with considerable variation across firms. We have found that this differing response reflects a range of factors, including the extent of a foreign firm's exposure to U.S. demand, its dependence on external financing, the behavior of interest rates in its home country, and its sensitivity to portfolio adjustment by U.S. investors. The cross-firm variation in the response ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 952

Working Paper
Has international financial co-movement changed? Emerging markets in the 2007-2009 financial crisis

Emerging market (EM) assets have historically been regarded as inherently risky and particularly vulnerable to international shocks that result in a general increase in investor risk perceptions. In this paper, we assess the ongoing relevance of this view by examining the linkages between EM and non-EM stock and bond markets in the past two decades, with a focus on how these relationships played out during the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. We evaluate how these linkages have evolved over the period 1992-2009, through statistical tests of whether the volatility of EM financial markets ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1006

Working Paper
Home Country Interest Rates and International Investment in U.S. Bonds

We analyze how interest rates affect cross-border portfolio investments. Data on U.S. bond holdings by foreign investors from 31 countries for the period 2003 - 2016 and a large variety in movements in interest rates in these countries provide for a unique way to analyze shifts in investment behavior in response to interest rates. We find that low(er) interest rates, now prevailing in many advanced countries, lead to greater investment in general into the United States, with the effects generally driven by investment in (higher yielding) corporate bonds, rather than in Treasury bonds. In ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1231

Working Paper
Macroeconomic risk and asset pricing: estimating the apt with observable factors

This paper develops and applies a new maximum likelihood method for estimating the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) model with observable risk factors. The approach involves simultaneous estimation of the factor loadings and risk premiums and can be applied to return panel with more securities than time series observations per security. Observable economic factors are found to account for 25 to 40 percent of the covariation in U.S. equity returns, and the APT pricing restrictions cannot be rejected for most sample periods. A significant "firm size anomaly" is measured, but it may be partly ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 448

Discussion Paper
"Low-For-Long" Interest Rates and Portfolio Shifts in Advanced Foreign Economies

For the past several years, interest rates in many advanced economies have been at historic lows. Although low interest rates have helped support recovery in these economies, persistently low rates have also raised concerns about increased incentives for risk-taking by investors to achieve higher yields.
IFDP Notes

Working Paper
Regulation and the cost of capital in Japan: a case study

Over the last several years, a combination of loan losses and regulatory barriers to equity issuance have left Japanese banks starved for capital. In September 1995, the Mitsubishi Bank was permitted to issue a complicated convertible security in a foreign market. The results of simulations of the price path of the underlying equity imply that Mitsubishi Bank's annualized risk-adjusted cost of capital through this instrument was between 80 and 310 basis points higher than if the bank had instead been able to issue common stock at its current price.
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 556

Working Paper
Are banks market timers or market makers? Explaining foreign exchange trading profits

We analyze the foreign exchange trading earnings of large U.S commercial banks over the past several years. In particular, we use several approaches to try to determine to what extent these profits can be attributed either to position-taking by banks or to the provision of intermediation services to bank customers. The results can be summarized as follows. First, banks appear to generate a substantial portion of their foreign exchange earnings from making markets in conventional spot and forward foreign exchange contracts. In addition, some indirect evidence supports anecdotal reports that ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 484

Working Paper
When is monetary policy effective?

In this paper, we investigate a number of issues that have not been completely addressed in previous studies regarding the possible asymmetric effects of monetary policy. Overall, we interpret our results as weak evidence in favor of sticky-wage and sticky-price theories and strong evidence against credit-rationing theories. First, we find that models that allow for asymmetries with respect to contractionary/expansionary monetary policy fit the data better than models that allow for asymmetries associated with the state of the business cycle. Second, we find that contractionary monetary ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 520

Discussion Paper
International Spillovers of Monetary Policy

This note presents a broad-brush overview of some of the salient issues on this topic and provides our sense of the answers to some key questions. We start by sketching out a simple framework for understanding how monetary policy actions spill over to other economies. The note then describes some back-of-the-envelope estimates of how U.S. monetary policy actions are transmitted overseas that we corroborate using a large-scale policy model (SIGMA). Finally, we discuss the implications of monetary policy spillovers for global economic stability, including the challenges posed by those ...
IFDP Notes , Paper 2016-02-08-1

Discussion Paper
"Low-For-Long" Interest Rates and Portfolio Shifts in Advanced Foreign Economies

For the past several years, interest rates in many advanced economies have been at historic lows. Although low interest rates have helped support recovery in these economies, persistently low rates have also raised concerns about increased incentives for risk-taking by investors to achieve higher yields.
IFDP Notes , Paper 2016-12-30-1

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