Simulating U.S. tax reform
A presentation of a large-scale, dynamic simulation model for comparing the equity, efficiency, and macroeconomic effects of five alternatives to the current U.S. federal income tax: a proportional income tax, a proportional consumption tax, a flat tax, a flat tax with transition relief, and a progressive variant of the flat tax called the "X tax."
Health care reform from a generational perspective
An analysis of the intergenerational tax burdens that are likely to arise under the Clinton administration's health care reform proposal as well as under two alternative plans, examining the potential redistributive effects of each.
Is household debt inhibiting the recovery?
An examination of the pattern of household debt and asset levels in a historical context, whose results cast doubt on the presumption that heavy consumer debt loads incurred during the 1980s are the cause of the economy's current sluggishness.
Computable general equilibrium models and monetary policy advice
Inflation, personal taxes, and real output: a dynamic analysis
Dollarization: what's in it for US?
Should the United States care if other countries abandon their own currencies and adopt the dollar? Dollarization imparts benefits to the United States as well as costs, and these ought to be weighed as we decide what to do about the growing number of countries turning to dollarization or considering it.
Pandemic-Era Uncertainty on Main Street and Wall Street
We draw on the monthly Survey of Business Uncertainty (SBU) to make three observations about pandemic-era uncertainty in the U.S. economy. First, equity market traders and executives of nonfinancial firms share similar assessments about uncertainty at one-year lookahead horizons. That is, the one-year VIX has moved similarly to our survey-based measure of (average) firm-level subjective uncertainty at one-year forecast horizons. Second, looking within the distribution of beliefs in the SBU reveals that firm-level expectations shifted towards upside risk in the latter part of 2020. In this ...
Firm-specific capital, nominal rigidities and the business cycle
This paper formulates and estimates a three-shock US business cycle model. The estimated model accounts for a substantial fraction of the cyclical variation in output and is consistent with the observed inertia in inflation. This is true even though firms in the model reoptimize prices on average once every 1.8 quarters. The key feature of our model underlying this result is that capital is firm-specific. If we adopt the standard assumption that capital is homogeneous and traded in economy-wide rental markets, we find that firms reoptimize their prices on average once every 9 quarters. We ...
U.S. Firms Foresee Intensifying Coronavirus Impact
In late March—even before many states had issued shelter-in-place, stay-at-home, or shutdown orders—we noted that firms were bracing for a huge negative impact on sales revenues from developments surrounding the coronavirus. Results from our March Survey of Business Uncertainty (SBU)—a national survey of firms of varying sizes and industries—revealed that disruptions stemming from COVID-19 had led to sharp declines in expectations for year-ahead sales growth.