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Author:Aiyagari, S. Rao 

Working Paper
Some explorations into optimal cyclical monetary policy

We consider the nature of optimal cyclical monetary policy in three different stochastic models with various shocks. The first is a pure liquidity effect model, the second is a cost of changing prices model, and the third is an optimal seignorage model. In each case we solve for the optimal monetary policy and describe how money growth and interest rates respond to shocks under the optimal policy. The shocks we consider are money demand shocks, productivity shocks, and government consumption shocks. All of the models have the feature that the Friedman rule of setting the nominal interest rate ...
Working Papers , Paper 565

The optimum quantity of debt

We find that the welfare gains to being at the optimum quantity of debt rather than the current U.S. level are small, and, therefore, concerns regarding the high level of debt in the U.S. economy may be misplaced. This finding is based on a model of a large number of infinitely-lived households whose saving behavior is influenced by precautionary saving motives and borrowing constraints. This model incorporates a different role for government debt than is found in standard models, and it captures different cost-benefit trade-offs. On the benefit side, government debt enhances the liquidity of ...
Staff Report , Paper 203

Working Paper
Coexistence of money and interest-bearing securities

A random matching model with money is used to study the nominal yield on small denomination, bearer, safe, discount securities issued by the government. There is always one steady state with matured securities circulating at par and, for some parameters, another with them circulating at a discount. In the former, a necessary and sufficient condition for a positive nominal yield on not-yet-matured securities is exogenous discriminatory treatment of them by the government. In the latter, the post-maturity discount on securities induces a deeper pre-maturity discount even without such ...
Working Papers , Paper 550

Journal Article
Deficits, interest rates, and the tax distribution

Quarterly Review , Volume 9 , Issue Win

Working Paper
The output, employment, and interest rate effects of government consumption

This paper investigates the impact on aggregate variables of changes in government consumption in the context of a stochastic, neoclassical growth model. We show, theoretically, that the impact on output and employment of a persistent change in government consumption exceeds that of temporary change. We also show that, in principle, there can be an analog to the Keynesian multiplier in the neoclassical growth model. Finally, in an empirically plausible version of the model, we show that the interest rate impact of a persistent government consumption shock exceeds that of a temporary one. Our ...
Working Papers , Paper 456

Working Paper
Efficient investment in children

If children are society?s most precious resource, as many would argue, how should we invest in them? To gain insight into this question, the authors develop a dynamic, general-equilibrium model in which children differ by ability. Parents invest time and money in their offspring, depending on their altruism, to help them grow into more productive adults. The authors characterize the efficient allocation, then compare it with the outcome that arises when financial markets are incomplete. They also examine the situation where childcare markets are lacking and analyze the consequences of impure ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 0105

Journal Article
On the contribution of technology shocks to business cycles

This article contends that the various measures of the contribution of technology shocks to business cycles calculated using the real business cycle modeling method are not corroborated. The article focuses on a different and much simpler method for calculating the contribution of technology shocks, which takes account of facts concerning the productivity/labor input correlation and the variability of labor input relative to output. Under several standard assumptions, the method predicts that the contribution of technology shocks must be large (at least 78 percent), that the labor supply ...
Quarterly Review , Volume 18 , Issue Win , Pages 22-34

Working Paper
Transaction services, inflation, and welfare

This paper is motivated by a variety of empirical observations on the comovements of currency velocity, inflation, and the relative size of the "credit services" sector. By the credit services sector we mean the part of banking and credit sector which provides alternative means of transactions to using currency as well as other services which help people economize on currency. We incorporate the credit services sector into a monetary growth model. Our model makes two specific and new contributions. The first is to show that direct quantitative evidence on the welfare cost of low inflation ...
Working Papers , Paper 551

Working Paper
Comments on Farmer and Guo's \"The econometrics of indeterminacy: an applied study.\"

(replaced by Staff Report No. 196)
Working Papers , Paper 543

Journal Article
Explaining financial market facts: the importance of incomplete markets and transaction costs

In this article, I suggest that incomplete markets and transaction costs are crucial for explaining the high equity premium and the low risk-free rate. I first demonstrate the failure of the complete frictionless markets model in explaining these return puzzles and then show how introducing incomplete markets and transaction costs can lead to success. Additionally, I explain how these features lead to predictions concerning individual consumptions, wealths, portfolios, and asset market transactions that are in better agreement with the facts than the predictions of the complete frictionless ...
Quarterly Review , Volume 17 , Issue Win , Pages 17-31


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