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National Preferences for Bank or Market Financing
This article examines the reasons some countries favor bank-based financial systems and others favor markets-based financial systems. We show that when societies are more accepting of ambiguity?and by extension are more trusting?market financing is favored over relationship-based collateral financing by banks.
Determinants of Expected Returns at Public Defined-Benefit Pension Plans
Estimated expected returns are important for pension plans, as they influence many plan characteristics including required asset levels, annual contributions, and the extent of plan under- or overfunding. Yet, there seems to be little prior literature on the factors influencing these estimated future returns. In an attempt to fill this gap, this paper presents the results of a panel analysis of data on the determinants of such returns used by US public defined-benefit (DB) pension plans for the period 2001?2011. As expected, we find that real return estimates by DB public pension funds are ...
Lending to women in microfinance: influence of social trust and national culture Lending to women in microfinance: influence of social trust and national culture
The preference of microfinance institutions for women borrowers is generally attributed to two reasons: women borrowers are more trustworthy and have greater social impact. However, the role of social trust with regard to this gender preference has not been adequately investigated. Controlling for the social outreach goals of MFIs, we document that MFIs favor women more in low trust countries, suggesting that women are targeted to offset low social trust. We also examine how the nature of trust formation affects this relationship between gender targeting and trust. Our results should be of ...
Assessing the impact of prompt corrective action on bank capital and risk
This paper was presented at the conference "Financial services at the crossroads: capital regulation in the twenty-first century" as part of session 1, "Impact of capital requirements on bank risk taking: empirical evidence." The conference, held at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on February 26-27, 1998, was designed to encourage a consensus between the public and private sectors on an agenda for capital regulation in the new century.