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Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
Staff Papers
Immigrants’ employment outcomes over the business cycle
Pia M. Orrenius
Madeline Zavodny

Immigrants have figured prominently in U.S. economic growth for decades, but the recent recession hit them hard. Immigrants’ labor market outcomes began deteriorating even before the recession was officially under way, largely as a result of the housing bust. An analysis of employment and unemployment rates over the past fifteen years shows that immigrants’ labor market outcomes are more cyclical than those of natives. The greater cyclicality of immigrants’ employment and unemployment is concentrated among less-educated immigrants, but college-educated immigrants nonetheless have more-cyclically sensitive employment outcomes than college-educated natives.

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Pia M. Orrenius & Madeline Zavodny, "Immigrants’ employment outcomes over the business cycle" , Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Staff Papers, issue Sep, 2011.
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Keywords: Business cycle; recession; employment; immigrants
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