Racial Disparities in Frontline Workers and Housing Crowding during COVID-19: Evidence from Geolocation Data
Abstract: We document that racial disparities in COVID-19 in New York City stem from patterns of commuting and housing crowding. During the initial wave of the pandemic, we find that out-of-home activity related to commuting is strongly associated with COVID-19 cases at the ZIP Code level and hospitalization at an individual level. After layoffs of essential workers decreased commuting, we find case growth continued through household crowding. A larger share of individuals in crowded housing or commuting to essential work are Black, Hispanic, and lower-income. As a result, structural inequalities, rather than population density, play a role in determining the cross-section of COVID-19 risk exposure in urban areas.
File(s): File format is application/pdf https://www.minneapolisfed.org/institute/working-papers-institute/iwp37.pdf
Provider: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
Part of Series: Opportunity and Inclusive Growth Institute Working Papers
Publication Date: 2020-09-23