Journal Article

Tornado Cash and Blockchain Privacy: A Primer for Economists and Policymakers

Abstract: This article explores non-custodial crypto asset mixers such as Tornado Cash. We analyze what types of mixers exist and how they work. We discuss opportunities and risks and offer an approach, based on voluntary disclosure, that would allow financial market regulators to combat money laundering and illicit activities, while allowing honest users to interact with privacy-enhancing protocols. We explain how crypto asset mixers play an important role on public blockchains and that privacy may be difficult to attain without them.

Keywords: cryptoassets; blockchain;

JEL Classification: B27; D53; G18;

Access Documents


Bibliographic Information

Provider: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Part of Series: Review

Publication Date: 2023

Volume: 105

Pages: 15 pages

Note: Forthcoming 2023