Digital, Financial, and Health Insurance Exclusion Experienced by Low-Income Households

Abstract: Many low-income households are excluded from essential services such as home internet access, bank accounts, and health insurance coverage. We examine to what degree low-income households experience digital, financial, and health insurance exclusion and assess whether education and race are correlated with exclusion. We find that more than 10 percent of low-income households experienced multiple types of exclusion in 2019, with more pronounced results for households with lower educational attainment.

Keywords: Low income households; Financial exclusion; Digital exclusion; Health insurance exclusion;

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Bibliographic Information

Provider: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City

Part of Series: Payments System Research Briefing

Publication Date: 2021-07-07

Issue: July 7, 2021

Pages: 9