Working Paper

Social Externalities of Bank Enforcement Actions: The Case of Minority Lending

Abstract: This paper studies the role banking supervision plays in improving access to credit for minorities by investigating how enforcement decisions and orders (EDOs) affect the bank borrower base. We find that, after an EDO's termination, banks significantly increase residential mortgage lending to minorities, even when the enforcement order is not issued for violations of fair lending laws. Our findings suggest that improvements in banks' internal credit assessment and compliance due to the enforcement process are associated with the expansion in lending to minority borrowers. Our findings highlight the indirect social benefits of bank enforcement and supervision.

Keywords: Banking; Competition; Disclosure; Discrimination; Enforcement actions; Mortgage lending;

JEL Classification: G21; G28; G38;

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Bibliographic Information

Provider: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)

Part of Series: Finance and Economics Discussion Series

Publication Date: 2022-06-02

Number: 2022-036