Working Paper

Divest, Disregard, or Double Down?

Abstract: How much, if at all, should an endowment invest in a firm whose activities run counter to the charitable missions the endowment funds? Endowments typically disregard the objectionable nature of or divest from such firms. However, if firm returns increase with activities the endowment combats, doubling down on the investment increases expected utility by aligning funding availability with need. I call this \"mission hedging.\" This paper offers the first model that characterizes the endowment's investment decision on the objectionable firm, defines investment trade-offs, and examines related evidence. Bad actors provide good opportunities to hedge mission-specific risks.

Keywords: Socially responsible investing; Divestment; Endowment; Foundation; Philanthropy; Portfolio; Universities and colleges;

JEL Classification: D64; G11; L31; Q5;

Access Documents


Bibliographic Information

Provider: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)

Part of Series: Finance and Economics Discussion Series

Publication Date: 2017-04

Number: 2017-042