Journal Article

Is the Middle Class Worse Off Than It Used to Be?


Abstract: We analyze how median real incomes in the United States have changed since 1980 under a definition of the middle class that adjusts for changes in demographics. We find that failing to adjust for demographic shifts in the population relating to age, race, and education can indicate a more positive outlook than is truly the case. We also find that the real median incomes of today’s middle class are somewhat higher than they used to be, particularly for households headed by two adults. We find, as in prior research, that prices for housing, healthcare, and education have risen more than middle-class incomes, while prices for transportation, food, and recreation have risen less than middle-class incomes.

https://doi.org/10.26509/frbc-ec-202003

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File(s): https://doi.org/10.26509/frbc-ec-202003
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Bibliographic Information

Provider: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Part of Series: Economic Commentary

Publication Date: 2020-February-12

Volume: 2020

Issue: 03

Pages: 6