Are service-sector jobs inferior?
An argument that the wage gap between the service-producing and goods-producing sectors has narrowed to the point that the service industries now offer wage opportunities very similar to those in manufacturing and construction.
AUTHORS: Dupuy, Max; Schweitzer, Mark E.
Service-sector wages: the importance of education
A study of how education affects wages in the manufacturing and service sectors, concluding that higher levels of basic education are necessary in order for both displaced manufacturing workers and new labor-force entrants to compete in the rapidly growing service sector.
AUTHORS: Swinton, John R.
This is Bangalore calling: hang up or speed dial? what technology-enabled international trade in services means for the U.S. economy and workforce
The U.S. service sector is in the midst of a transformation similar to the one undergone by the manufacturing sector. Some jobs are moving to other countries, some are disappearing, some are being born. But the service-sector transformation is likely to be different. Technological advances and globalization are making it possible, but these factors reinforce each other in such a way that the gains to the U.S. economy are likely to be greater than with manufacturing, and the transition costs more widespread. Thus, superior and better coordinated domestic and international policies are needed to address the challenges and opportunities.
AUTHORS: Mann, Catherine L.
The service-sector recovery in Cleveland
A discussion of factors affecting the rates of service-sector growth in Cleveland, Ohio, using national and local data to examine expenditures, linkages with manufacturing, and employment trends.
AUTHORS: Schnorbus, Robert H.; Jackson, Lorie D.
The emerging service economy
A description and examination of the expanding service economy, with the contention that its growth reflects a natural and inevitable response to rising wealth.
AUTHORS: Bryan, Michael F.; Beeson, Patricia E.
Are the Great Lakes cities becoming service centers?
A look at how the dwindling manufacturing base in the Midwest's 10 major metropolitan areas has transformed them into service centers for their surrounding communities, which have picked up many of the factory jobs that have left the cities.
AUTHORS: Groshen, Erica L.; Robertson, Laura
What's hampering job growth in the District's services sector?
Employment growth in the Tenth District has fallen behind the national rate in 1999 for the first time in ten years. Although all economic sectors have been experiencing slower job growth, the services sector, due to its size, has played perhaps the most important role in the slowdown of overall employment growth in the district. While services employment elsewhere in the nation continues to grow rapidly, the district has witnessed very little job expansion in services so far in 1999 (Chart 1). In fact, the district services sector has added jobs during the first seven months of this year at less than a third of the rate enjoyed by the nation as a whole.
AUTHORS: Gazel, Ricardo C.; Wilkerson, Chad R.
Offshoring in the service sector : economic impact and policy issues
The United States continues to run an international trade surplus in services, but business stories frequently appear about service-sector jobs moving offshore. Many Americans are particularly concerned about the loss of skilled, well-paid jobs in such fields as computer programming and accounting. These jobs seemed relatively secure at a time when many manufacturing jobs were being lost to import competition. Similarly, telephone call centers, once viewed as an economic development opportunity in some areas, increasingly are moving to low-wage countries, such as India and the Philippines. Reflecting this growing concern, some members of Congress and state legislators have focused attention on the offshoring of service jobs and production, even introducing legislation to limit the outsourcing of jobs to other countries. Offshoring raises many questions for policymakers and the general public. For example, which service jobs will be affected most by import competition? What are the most likely effects of service-sector offshoring on U.S. output, employment, and, most important, our standard of living? Is offshoring really a problem that requires restrictive government actions, or are other kinds of policies more appropriate to give Americans the highest possible living standard? ; Garner examines the economic effects of offshoring and possible policy responses. He finds that although the offshoring of service jobs hurts some workers, offshoring should not permanently lower U.S. employment or production. ; Moreover, the average living standard can benefit over the long run if the nation adopts policies to retrain displaced workers and move them into expanding industries.
AUTHORS: Garner, C. Alan
Cyclical implications of the declining manufacturing employment share
Over the last 35 years, the U.S. economy has created service sector jobs at a faster pace than manufacturing sector jobs. Not only has this trend led to a significant shift in the composition of the labor force from manufacturing to services, but it has also fundamentally changed the characteristics of the average workplace. ; Some economists have argued that the ongoing structural shifts from manufacturing employment to services employment may have had the additional consequence of smoothing the business cycle. A smoother cycle would be welcomed and would yield several benefits. The economy would grow more stably and would provide a more predictable backdrop for working, saving, and investing. ; Filardo investigates whether the shift from manufacturing to services employment has muted the business cycle. He concludes that the declining manufacturing employment share may have substantially changed the workplace but has had little impact on the smoothness of the business cycle.
AUTHORS: Filardo, Andrew J.
General remarks on trade zones and the Uruguay round
AUTHORS: Carlisle, Charles R.