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Journal Article
Access to Electronic Payments Systems by Unbanked Consumers

Fumiko Hayashi identifies electronic payment products that can mitigate unbanked consumers? problems with the banking system.
Economic Review , Issue Q III , Pages 51-76

Discussion Paper
Selection in Banking

Over the past thirty years, more than 2,900 U.S. banks have transformed from pure depository institutions into conglomerates involved in a broad range of business activities. What type of banks choose to become conglomerate organizations? In this post, we document that, from 1986 to 2018, such institutions had, on average, a higher return on equity in the three years prior to their decision to expand, as well as a lower level of risk overall. However, this superior pre-expansion performance diminishes over time, and all but disappears by the end of the 1990s.
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20191216

Working Paper
A Price-Differentiation Model of the Interbank Market and Its Application to a Financial Crisis

Rate curves for overnight loans between bank pairs, as functions of loan values, can be used to infer valuation of reserves by banks. The inferred valuation can be used to interpret shifts in rate curves between bank pairs, for example, in response to a financial crisis. This paper proposes a model of lending by a small bank to a large monopolistic bank to generate a tractable rate curve. An explicit calibration procedure for model parameters is developed and applied to a dataset from Mexico around the 2008 financial crisis. During the crisis, relatively small banks were lending to large ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2017-065

The Differing Effects of the Business Cycle on Small and Large Banks

Small banks and large banks respond differently to business cycle fluctuations. The average net interest margin (NIM) at large banks is negatively correlated with the business cycle, while the average NIM at small banks is positively correlated with the business cycle. In a popular view, small banks are different from large banks because of their close relationships with their borrowers. But a decomposition of the cyclical properties of NIM into the asset and liability sides of the balance sheet suggests that small banks' procyclical NIM is due to their ability to keep funding costs less ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue November

Faster Payments, More Disruptions

New payment technologies have transformed the banking system by increasing the efficiency and mechanisms to transfer funds. How will these innovations disrupt the banking system?
On the Economy

Energy Financing Trends Consistent with Renewables’ Growth

Equity markets appear to favor renewable-energy producers relative to their hydrocarbon counterparts. However, the relatively smaller size of many renewables projects complicates direct comparisons of bank lending to hydrocarbon and renewable entities.
Dallas Fed Economics

Life Insurers’ Preference for Familiar Bond Issuers Limits COVID-19 Shock Transmission

Despite regulations that encourage diversification and informational symmetry among buyers, insurance companies tend to lend to their current borrowers. This bondholder–issuer relationship moderates the effect of transitory economic shocks such as those associated with the onset of COVID-19.
Dallas Fed Economics

Fed’s Mortgage-Backed Securities Purchases Sought Calm, Accommodation During Pandemic

We explore the Federal Reserve’s purchases of agency MBS—mortgage bonds guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac—and related market dynamics during the pandemic, including why mortgage rates fell to historic lows.
Dallas Fed Economics

Working Paper
Shareholder activism in banking

This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Creditor Conflict. However, during financial crises, the increase in risk disappears, suggesting ...
Research Working Paper , Paper RWP 15-9

Working Paper
The Fed's Discount Window in "Normal" Times

We study new transaction-level data of discount window borrowing in the U.S. between 2010 and 2017, merged with quarterly data on bank financial con- ditions (balance sheet and revenue). The objective is to improve our under- standing of the reasons for why banks use the discount window during periods outside financial crises. We also provide a model of the decision of banks to borrow at the window, which is helpful for interpreting the data. We find that decisions to gain access and to borrow at the discount window are meaning- fully correlated with some relevant banks' characteristics and ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2021-016


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