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Keywords:Banking 

Working Paper
Unexpected Effects of Bank Bailouts: Depositors Need Not Apply and Need Not Run

A key policy issue is whether bank bailouts weaken or strengthen market discipline. We address this by analyzing how bank bailouts influence deposit quantities and prices of recipients versus other banks. Using the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) bailouts, we find both deposit quantities and prices decline, consistent with substantially reduced demand for deposits by bailed-out banks that dominate market discipline supply effects. Main findings are robust to numerous checks and endogeneity tests. However, diving deeper into depositor heterogeneity suggests nuances. Increases in uninsured ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-10

Briefing
The Differing Effects of the Business Cycle on Small and Large Banks

Small banks and large banks respond differently to business cycle fluctuations. The average net interest margin (NIM) at large banks is negatively correlated with the business cycle, while the average NIM at small banks is positively correlated with the business cycle. In a popular view, small banks are different from large banks because of their close relationships with their borrowers. But a decomposition of the cyclical properties of NIM into the asset and liability sides of the balance sheet suggests that small banks' procyclical NIM is due to their ability to keep funding costs less ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue November

Working Paper
The Effect of Banks' Financial Position on Credit Growth : Evidence from OECD Countries

This paper presents empirical evidence on the effect of banks' financial position on credit growth using a sample of 29 OECD countries. The failure of the exogeneity assumption of explanatory variables is addressed using dynamic panel type instruments. The empirical results show that among capital, profits and liquidity at the end of the previous year, capital is the most important predictor of credit growth in the current year. The relationship between capital and credit growth is non-linear. Point estimates from the preferred econometric specification imply that at the sample mean a one ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2016-101

Journal Article
Has the Relationship between Bank Size and Profitability Changed?

Kristen Regehr and Rajdeep Sengupta explore whether the relationship between bank size and profitability changed after the 2007?09 financial crisis.
Economic Review , Issue Q II , Pages 49-72

Working Paper
Observing Enforcement: Evidence from Banking

This paper finds that the disclosure of supervisory actions is associated with changes in regulators' enforcement behavior. Using a novel sample of enforcement decisions and orders (EDOs) and the setting of the 1989 Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act (FIRREA), which required the public disclosure of EDOs, we find that U.S. bank regulators issue more EDOs, intervene sooner, and rely more on publicly observable signals after the disclosure regime change. The content of EDOs also changes, with documents becoming more complex and boilerplate. Our results are stronger in ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2021-049

Renewable Energy Projects Present Unique Lender Risks, Need for Oversight

A vigorous risk management program can mitigate potential problems facing banks and nonbank financial institutions engaged in financing these facilities—whether as agents, loan participants or direct lenders.
Dallas Fed Economics

Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and Dallas Conference Explored Housing, Urban Economics

Residential real estate prices rose sharply throughout the United States following the onset of COVID-19 in early 2020. While property owners received a capital gains windfall, first-time buyers and renters have struggled with reduced affordability.
Dallas Fed Economics

After the Bust, the Long Road to Housing Finance Reform

The Treasury recently released a plan proposing several administrative and legislative changes aimed at returning Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to the private sector after more than a decade of federal control.
Dallas Fed Economics

Working Paper
Stablecoins: Growth Potential and Impact on Banking

Stablecoins have experienced tremendous growth in the past year, serving as a possible breakthrough innovation in the future of payments. In this paper, we discuss the current use cases and growth opportunities of stablecoins, and we analyze the potential for stablecoins to broadly impact the banking system. The impact of stablecoin adoption on traditional banking and credit provision can vary depending on the sources of inflow and the composition of stablecoin reserves. Among the various scenarios, a two-tiered banking system can both support stablecoin issuance and maintain traditional ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1334

Energy Financing Trends Consistent with Renewables’ Growth

Equity markets appear to favor renewable-energy producers relative to their hydrocarbon counterparts. However, the relatively smaller size of many renewables projects complicates direct comparisons of bank lending to hydrocarbon and renewable entities.
Dallas Fed Economics

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