It has been three years since we published A Guide to the ATM and Debit Card Industry. Those three years represent a very dynamic time in the industry with a number of important developments. Some trends and patterns have persisted or accelerated, while others have peaked or reversed. Still others have emerged for the first time. The purpose of this 2006 Update is to document these trends and patterns by updating the data we presented in the original book and to discuss their implications for the current and future state of the industry. ; The most important development is that the two segments of the industry, ATM and debit, are in some sense going in opposite directions. The ATM industry has matured and is relatively stagnant, with major players jockeying for position, searching for and adopting different business strategies, and adjusting to the maturation of the industry. The debit card industry, in contrast, is expanding rapidly, with new players, new partnerships, new products, and new markets. The challenge in the debit card industry is not how to cope with a maturing industry but, rather, how to preserve and enhance position and not be left behind. ; In the first part of this Update, we highlight and discuss some of the most important changes in the ATM and debit card industry. For both the ATM and debit sides of the industry, we recap and analyze changes in activity levels, industry structure, and industry pricing. We then offer some thoughts on what might lie ahead, including a discussion of fraud and data security. In the second part of this Update, we present updated versions of the 23 charts and 11 tables from the original book, adding the three or four years of additional data that have since become available.